What is Taiko?

Taiko is a decentralized Ethereum-equivalent ZK-EVM and general-purpose ZK-Rollup. Its purpose is to allow developers and users of dApps developed for Ethereum L1 to be used on Taiko without any changes. As a result, dApps can be easily deployed to L2, inheriting Ethereum's security while incurring lower transaction fees than on L1.

How does Taiko differ from other ZK-EVMs?

Currently, only the Privacy and Scaling Explorations (PSE) team and Taiko are working on a Type 1 ZK-EVM. This means it aims to be Ethereum-equivalent.

You can read more about the difference between a Type 1 ZK-EVM and others from our blog post: The Type 1 ZK-EVM (opens in a new tab).

Where can I learn more about Taiko?

Here are the official links to our social media and public documentation:

What is Layer 2 (L2)?

Layer 2 refers to an off-chain solution built on top of Ethereum L1 that aids in the reduction of data bottlenecks and improves scaling. L2 differentiates itself by offering lower fees and higher throughput. L2 transactions combine multiple off-chain transactions into a single L1 transaction, reducing data load while also maintaining security and decentralization by settling transactions on the mainnet.

Learn more about Layer 2 (opens in a new tab)

What is a rollup?

Rollups conduct transactions on L2, which is quicker and allows for batching, and then send the transaction data back to Ethereum L1 at a far cheaper cost. Users can benefit from the rollup's efficiency and accessibility as well as the safety of the Ethereum blockchain as a result. Rollups are a fundamental piece to Ethereum's scaling solution.

Learn more about scaling (opens in a new tab)

What is a Zero-Knowledge Rollup (ZK-Rollup)?

ZK-Rollups generate cryptographic proofs to validate transaction authenticity. These proofs which are posted to L1 are known as validity proofs. ZK-Rollups are more efficient because they maintain the state of all L2 transfers, which are only updated via validity proofs. There are 2 types of validity proof: SNARKs (Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge), and STARKs (Scalable Transparent Argument of Knowledge).

Every batch, which can have thousands of transactions submitted to Ethereum, includes a cryptographic proof with minimal data verified by a contract that is deployed on the Ethereum mainnet. Since ZK-Rollups do not require the entire transaction data, it is simpler to validate blocks and transfer data to L1.

Learn more about ZK-Rollups (opens in a new tab)

What is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)?

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a software platform that developers can use to deploy and run smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. Also known as a "virtual computer", the EVM enforces the rules of the Ethereum protocol and ensures the integrity of the Ethereum blockchain by processing and validating transactions. Developers can use the EVM to build decentralized applications (dApps) in a secure and trusted manner.

Learn more about the EVM (opens in a new tab)

What is a Zero-Knowledge Ethereum Virtual Machine (ZK-EVM)?

The ZK-EVM proves the correctness of the EVM computations on the rollup with validity proofs.

Taiko implements a ZK-EVM that supports every EVM opcode, producing a validity proof of the ZK-EVM circuit. Besides perfect compatibility with Ethereum L1 smart contracts and dapps, this also means that all Ethereum and solidity tooling works seamlessly with Taiko, no need to disrupt developers’ workflow whatsoever.

What is a Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP)?

A zero-knowledge proof is a method by which one party (the prover) can prove to another party (the verifier) that something is true, without revealing any information apart from the fact that this specific statement is true.

There are 2 types of zero-knowledge proofs: ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs. Taiko uses ZK-SNARKs in its design.

What is a ZK-SNARK?

A Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge (ZK-SNARK) is a type of zero-knowledge proof in which one party can demonstrate the possession of certain information without revealing the information itself and having any direct communication between the party providing the proof and the party verifying it. ZK-SNARKs are known to be lighter than ZK-STARKs and take less time to verify. They also require less gas, offering cheaper transactions.

Learn more about ZK-SNARKs (opens in a new tab)

What does "Taiko" mean?

The word "Taiko" comes from an old Chinese saying 一鼓作气 (Yīgǔzuòqì). The literal meaning of the saying is that the first drum beat arouses courage. The implied meaning of the idiom is to accomplish a task or goal in one intense effort.

Taiko (太鼓) also means a "drum" in Japanese. For us, Taiko is the drum that arouses courage and leads to accomplishing goals.